Leishmaniasis is one of the world’s most neglected tropical disease. Transmitted by the bite of the female phlebotomine sand flies and cause by protozan parasites from the genus Leishmania, these diseases are devastatingly disfiguring and can be fatal.
There are three types of Leishmaniasis:
1. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar) which is fatal if left untreated;
2. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) which is typically the most common, causing skin lesions that can be self-resolving but if untreated can lead to mucocutaneous lesions. In its more common clinical presentation, it is known as “Silent Sheikh,” “Oriental Sore,” “Aleppo Boil”
3. Mucocutaneous lesions can lead to partial or total destruction of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and throat cavities and surrounding tissues.
According to the World Health Organization, 310 million people are at risk of infection in six countries reporting over 90% Visceral Leishmaniasis cases worldwide.